Uzbek Language

Uzbek Language

Uzbek (Ўзбек тили / O’zbek tili / أۇزبېك ﺗﻴﻠی)

Uzbek is a Turkic language with about 16.5 million speakers mainly in Uzbekistan. but also in Australia, China, Germany, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkey (Asia), Turkmenistan, Ukraine and the USA.

An early form of Uzbek, known as Chagatai (one of the sons of Genghis Khan) and written with the Arabic script, emerged as a literary language in the 14th century. A version of the Latin alphabet replaced the Arabic script in 1927, and was in turn replaced by the Cyrillic alphabet in 1940. Recently, moves have been made to reintroduce the Latin alphabet.

Arabic alphabet for Uzbek (ئۇزبېك الفباسى)

Arabic alphabet for Uzbek

Cyrillic alphabet for Uzbek (ўзбек алифбоси)

Cyrillic alphabet for Uzbek

Latin alphabet for Uzbek (o’zbek alifbosi) – 1995 version

Latin alphabet for Uzbek

Uzbek sample text

Arabic alphabet

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in the Uzbek Arabic alphabet

Cyrillic alphabet

Барча одамлар эрҝин, қадр-қиммат ва ҳуқуқларда танг бўлиб туғиладилар. Улар ақл ва виждон соҳибидирлар ва бир-бирларига биродарларча муомала қилишлари зарур.

Latin alphabet

Barcha odamlar erkin, qadr-qimmat va huquqlarda tang bo’lib tug’iladilar. Ular aql va vijdon sohibidirlar va bir-birlariga birodarlarcha muomala qilishlari zarur.

A recording of this text

Translation

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Information about Uzbek | Useful phrases in Uzbek | Tower of Babel in Uzbek | Uzbek learning materials

Links

Information about the Uzbek language
http://www.oxuscom.com/250words.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uzbek_language

Online Uzbek lessons
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Uzbek_language
http://home.unilang.org/wiki3/index.php/Uzbek_lessons
http://www.languageinstitute.wisc.edu/cails/lessons.html

Uzbek phrases
http://www.orexca.com/uzbek_language.shtml
http://uzbek-glossary.com

Learn Turkic languages – Turkish, Turkmen and Uzbek
http://www.xs4all.nl/~iamback/turkic/

Online Uzbek dictionaries
http://www.ismanov.com
http://uzbek.firespeaker.org
http://www.turkbirlik.gen.tr/
http://www.gaspirali.net/uz/sozluk

Online Uzbek radio
http://www.bbc.co.uk/uzbek/
http://www.ozodlik.org

Turkic languages

Altay, Äynu, Azerbaijani, Bashkir, Chuvash, Crimean Tatar, Gagauz, Karachay-Balkar, Karakalpak, Kazakh, Khakas, Krymchak, Kumyk, Kyrgyz, Nogai, Old Turkic, Salar, Shor, Tatar, Turkish, Turkmen, Tuvan, Uyghur, Uzbek, Yakut

Other languages written with the Arabic, Cyrillic and Latin alphabets.

Introduction to the Uzbek Language

by Mark Dickens

To view the Cyrillic characters on this page, you will need to download the Panda Times UZ font

A. Pronunciation

Uzbek is currently written in the Cyrillic script, which has been in use since 1940, and the Latin script, which has been introduced in the last couple of years and is now being used more and more, though most people only know the Cyrillic script and most signs and written materials are still only in Cyrillic. In general, words are pronounced as they sound in the Latin script, but some explanation is necessary for a few of the sounds represented by certain Latin letters. Below are those sounds which are not found in English or which require some explanation. Note that stress in Uzbek is generally on the last syllable, except for a few suffixes, which are never stressed. In the wordlist below, stressed syllables are underlined. Note also that two adjacent vowels are pronounced separately (e.g. ñîàò “soat” is pronounced like English “saw at”), but a vowel followed by “y” becomes a diphthong (e.g. áîé “boy” is pronounced the same as English “boy”).


Cyrillic Latin Pronunciation
À à A a “a” as in “cat”
Å å Ye ye, E e “ye” as in “yet” at the beginning of a word, “e” as in “let” elsewhere
¨ ¸ Yo yo “ya” as in “yawn”
È è I I “i” as in “pin”
Î î O o “o” as in “pot”
Ð ð R r a “trilled r” (like in Scottish), or, between vowels, a “flapped r” (like “dd” in “ladder” in normal speech)
Ó ó U u “oo” as in “cool”
Õ õ X x “ch” as in German “Bach” or Scottish “loch”
Ý ý E e “e” as in “let”
Þ þ Yu yu “yu” as in “you”
ß ÿ Ya ya “ya” as in “yak”
Œ œ O’ o’ “u” as in “put” (also represents a second vowel in some dialects, similar to “au” as in “caught”
Š š Q q like a “k” but further back in the mouth
Ђ ђ G’ g’ like a French “r” (voiced version of “x”)
Ќ ќ H h like “h”

B. Wordlist

Below are 250 of the most common Uzbek words, in both Cyrillic and Latin script, along with their definitions, arranged according to the different parts of speech (categories of words). Note that some of these words could be listed in two different categories (e.g. ќîçèð “now” is both a noun and an adverb, òåç “quick, quickly” is both an adjective and an adverb).

1. Pronouns

ìåí men I
ñåí sen you (singular, informal)
ó u he/she/it, that
áó bu this
ñèç siz you (plural, formal)
áèç biz we
óëàð ular they

2. Adjectives

ÿõøè yaxshi good
çœð zo’r excellent
¸ìîí yomon bad
œðòà÷à o’rtacha in the middle
êàòòà katta big
êè÷êèíà kichkina small
ÿíãè yangi new
ýñêè eski old (thing)
¸ø yosh young
šàðè qari old (person)
êàñàë kasal sick
ñîђ sog’ healthy
šèììàò qimmat expensive
àðçîí arzon cheap
èññèš issiq hot
ñîâóš sovuq cold
ñåêèí sekin slow
òåç tez fast
ÿšèí yaqin close
óçîš uzoq far
òœђðè to’g’ri correct, straight
áîé boy rich
õóðñàíä xursand happy
÷èðîéëè chiroyli beautiful, good-looking
òîçà toza clean
òàé¸ð tayyor ready
øèðèí shirin sweet
êàì kam small, few, little
îçãèíà ozgina a little
êœï ko’p much, many
ќàð har each
ќàììà hamma all
áóòóí butun whole
ќå÷ hech none
êœïðîš ko’proq more
êåðàê kerak necessary
ìóìêèí mumkin possible
œíã o’ng right
÷àï chap left
áîøšà boshqa other
ýíã eng most
šîðà qora black
îš oq white
ñàðèš sariq yellow
šèçèë qizil red
êœê ko’k blue

3. Numbers

áèð bir one
èêêè ikki two
ó÷ uch three
òœðò to’rt four
áåø besh five
îëòè olti six
åòòè yetti seven
ñàêêèç sakkiz eight
òœššèç to’qqiz nine
œí o’n ten
éèãèðìà yigirma twenty
œòòèç o’ttiz thirty
šèðš qirq forty
ýëëèê ellik fifty
îëòìèø oltmish sixty
åòìèø yetmish seventy
ñàêñîí sakson eighty
òœšñîí to’qson ninety
þç yuz hundred
ìèíã ming thousand 
ÿðèì yarim half

4. Adverbs

áó åðäà bu yerda here
ó åðäà u yerda there
ќîçèð hozir now, wait a minute
ýðòà erta early
êå÷ kech late
êå÷à kecha yesterday
áóãóí bugun today
ýðòàãà ertaga tomorrow
áèðãà birga together
æóäà juda very
ôàšàò faqat only
ÿíà yana again
ќàëè hali still, yet

5. Question words

íèìà nima what
êèì kim who
šàåðäà qayerda where
šàåðãà qayerga where to
šàíè qani where (exactly)
šà÷îí qachon when
íèìàãà nimaga why
šàíäàé qanday how, what kind of
šàí÷à qancha how much, how many
íå÷à necha how much, how many
šàéñè qaysi which

6. Conjunctions

àãàð agar if
âà va and
¸êè yoki or
ëåêèí lekin but
÷óíêè chunki because
ќàì ham also

7. Postpositions

áèëàí bilan with
¸íèäà yonida beside
è÷èäà ichida inside
êåéèí keyin after
îëäèí oldin before
óñòèäà ustida on top of
ó÷óí uchun for
ќàšèäà haqida about

8. Verb stems

àéò- ayt- say
áåð- ber- give
áèë- bil- know (something)
áîð- bor- go
áœë- bo’l- be, become
ãàïèð- gapir- speak
äàì îë- dam ol- rest
äàðñ áåð- dars ber- teach (give lessons)
å- ye- eat
¸ç- yoz- write
¸ï- yop- close
¸ò- yot- lie down
è÷- ich- drink
èøîí- ishon- believe
êåë- kel- come
êåò- ket- go, leave
êèð- kir- enter
êóò- kut- wait
êœð- ko’r- see
îë- ol- take
îëèá áîð- olib bor- take (to someone)
îëèá êåë- olib kel- bring
î÷- och- open
ñîë- sol- put in
ñîò- sot- sell
ñîòèá îë- sotib ol- buy
òóð- tur- stand, live
òóøóí- tushun- understand
÷èš- chiq- exit, go out
ýøèò- eshit- listen
þâ- yuv- wash
þð- yur- walk
œðãàí- o’rgan- learn, study
œò- o’t- pass
œòèð- o’tir- sit down
šàéò- qayt- return
šèë- qil- do, make
šœé- qo’y- put

9. Nouns

à¸ë ayol woman
áàõò baxt happiness
áîëà bola child
áîçîð bozor outdoor market
âàšò vaqt time
ãœøò go’sht meat
äàðñ dars lesson
äåðàçà deraza window
äåâîð devor wall
äœêîí do’kon shop, store
äœñò do’st friend
åð yer ground
¸ðäàì yordam help
¸ђ yog’ butter, oil
æàâîá javob answer
èñì ism name
èø÷è ishchi worker
éèë yil year
êàëèò kalit key
êå÷šóðóí kechqurun evening
êèéèì kiyim clothing
êèòîá kitob book
êèøè kishi person
êóí kun day
êœ÷à ko’cha street
ìàêòàá maktab school
ìàøèíà mashina car
ìåâà meva fruit
ìåќìîí mehmon guest
íàðñà narsa thing
íîí non bread
îâšàò ovqat food
îèëà oila family
îé oy moon, month
îíà ona mother
îòà ota father
îø osh food, rice pilaf
ïè¸ëà piyola cup
ïóë pul money
ðó÷êà ruchka pen
ñàâîë savol question
ñàáçàâîò sabzavot vegetable
ñîàò soat hour, watch, clock
ñòîë stol table
ñòóë stul chair
ñóâ suv water
ñóìêà sumka bag
ñóò sut milk
ñœç so’z word
òàëàáà talaba student
òóàëåò tualet toilet
òóç tuz salt
óé uy house
õîíà xona room
õîòèí xotin wife
Õóäî Xudo God
÷îé choy tea
øàêàð shakar sugar
øàќàð shahar city
ýð er husband
ýðêàê erkak man
ýðòàëàá ertalab morning
ýøèê eshik door
þðàê yurak heart
œšèòóâ÷è o’qituvchi teacher
œђèë o’g’il son
šèç qiz daughter
šèøëîš qishloq village
šîøèš qoshiq spoon
šîђîç qog’oz paper
šœøíè qo’shni neighbour
ќàôòà hafta week
ќîâëè hovli courtyard

10. Useful Words and Expressions

Aðçèìàéäè. Arzimaydi. You’re welcome.
áîð bor existent, there is/are
Áó íèìà? Bu nima? What is this?
Áœïòè. Bo’pti. Okay, well.
èëòèìîñ iltimos please (request)
霚 yo’q no, not, there is/are not
Kå÷èðàñèç. Kechirasiz. Excuse me.
Màéëè. Mayli. Well, all right
Màíà. Mana. Look, here.
ìàðќàìàò marhamat please (offering)
Ìåíãà ¸šäè. Mengayoqdi. I like it.
Íå÷à ¸øäàñèç? Necha yoshdasiz? How old are you?
Îèëàíãèç áîðìè? Oilangiz bormi? Do you have a family?
ðàќìàò rahmat thank you
Càëîì. Salom. Hello (literally, peace).
Ñèçãà ¸šäèìè? Sizga yoqdimi? Do you like it?
Ñîàò íå÷à? Soat necha? What time is it?
Xàéð. Xayr. Goodbye.
Õóø êåëèáñèç. Xush kelibsiz. Welcome.
Xœï. Xo’p. Okay, very well.
ýìàñ emas not
ßõøèìèñèç? Yaxshimisiz? Are you well?
Šàåðäà èøëàéñèç? Qayerda ishlaysiz? Where do you work?
Šàåðäàíñèç? Qayerdansiz? Where are you from?
Šàëàéñèç? Qalaysiz? How are you?
Šà÷îí êåëèäèíãèç? Qachon keldingiz? When did you come?
ќà ha yes

C. Grammar

1. Word order is Subject-Object-Verb:

Men kitob yozdim (I book wrote): I wrote a book.

2. Adjectives come before nouns:

U yosh bola (He young child): He is a young child.

3. Adverbs come before verbs:

U tez gapirdi (He quickly spoke): He spoke quickly.

4. Question words are placed in the sentence where the answer will go:

Bu kim? Bu Aziz (This who? This Aziz): Who is this? This is Aziz.

5. Postpositions work like prepositions in English, except they come after the noun:

Biz non haqida gapirdik (We bread about talked): We talked about bread.

6. Endings to add to the verbstem to speak in the Present-Future Tense:

-aman   I   Kelaman   I come/will come.

-asan   you (singular/informal)   Kelasan   You come/will come.

-adi   he/she/it   Keladi   He comes/will come.

-amiz   we   Kelamiz   We come/will come.

-asiz   you (plural/formal)   Kelasiz   You come/will come.

-adilar   they   Keladilar   They come/will come.

7. Endings to add to the verbstem to speak in the Past Tense:

-dim   I   Keldim   I came.

-ding   you (singular/informal)   Kelding   You came.

-di   he/she/it   Keldi   He came.

-dik   we   Keldik   We came.

-dingiz   you (plural/formal)   Keldingiz   You came.

-dilar   they   Keldilar   They came.

8. To make a verb into a command:

Kel!   Come! (no suffix on verbstem)

Keling!   Come! (more polite)

Kelinglar!   Come! (even more polite)

9. To make a verb negative:

Kel-   to come   Keldim   I came.

Kelma-   to not come   Kelmadim   I didn’t come.

10. To make a verb into a “yes/no” question:

Keladi   He will come.   Keladimi?   Will he come?

Keldi   He came.   Keldimi?   Did he come?

11. To ask a “yes/no” question with the verb “to be”:

Men yaxshimanmi?   Am I well?   Biz yaxshimizmi?   Are we well?

Sen yaxshimisan?   Are you well?   Siz yaxshimisiz?   Are you well?

U yaxshimi?   Is he well?   Ular yaxshimi?   Are they well?

12. To make a noun plural:

kitob   book

kitoblar   books

13. To express location at, movement towards or away from an object:

uy   house   uyda   at the house

uyga   to the house   uydan   from the house

Maktabdan uyga bordim.   I went from the school to the house.

14. Endings to add to express possession:

-im   my   kitobim   my book

-ing   your (singular/informal)   kitobing   your book

-i   his/her/its   kitobi   his/her book

-imiz   our   kitobimiz   our book

-ingiz   your (plural/formal)   kitobingiz   your book

-ilar   their   kitobilar   their book



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